Tag Archives: CDC

CDC’s 2016 National Influenza Vaccination Week (NIVW)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Influenza Vaccination Week (NIVW) is scheduled for December 4-10, 2016.  The CDC established National Influenza Vaccination Week (NIVW) in 2005 to raise public awareness about the importance of flu vaccination.  The 2016 national awareness week focuses on highlighting the importance of influenza vaccination and continuing flu vaccination through the holiday season and beyond.  To learn more about what is new for the 2016-2017 flu season, view the CDC’s Factsheet by clicking HERE.

It's National Influenza Vaccination Week

NIVW Timing

Flu vaccination coverage estimates from past years have shown that influenza vaccination activity drops quickly after the end of November.

CDC and its partners choose to December for NIVW to remind people that even though the holiday season has arrived, it is not too late to get your flu vaccine.  As long as flu viruses are spreading and causing illness, vaccination can provide protection against the influenza virus and should continue.

Even if you haven’t yet received a vaccine and have already gotten sick with one flu virus, you can still benefit from vaccination since the flu vaccine protects against three or four different flu viruses (depending on which flu vaccine you get).

Flu Vaccination for People at High Risk

Another goal of NIVW is to communicate the importance of flu vaccination for people who are at high risk for developing flu-related complications.  People at high risk of serious flu complications include young children, pregnant women, people with certain chronic health conditions like asthma, diabetes, heart disease or lung disease, and people aged 65 years and older.  For people at high risk, getting the flu can mean developing serious flu-related complications, like pneumonia, or a worsening of existing health conditions, which can lead to hospitalization or death.

For more information about how Sentry’s proven vaccine management system can protect your vaccine throughout the global supply chain, contact Sentry via email or by phone at 1-866-757-7400.

To contact CDC by phone call (800) 232-4636 (800-CDC-INFO) or visit the website at

www.cdc.gov/flu/nivw .

CDC Report: First cases of Candida auris reported in U.S.

On Friday, November 4, 2016 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced the first cases of Candida auris were reported in the United States (U.S.).candida_strain

A strain of Candida auris cultured in a petri dish at CDC.
Photo Credit: Shawn Lockhart, CDC

Thirteen cases of Candida auris (C. auris), a serious and sometimes fatal fungal infection that is emerging globally, have been identified in the United States, according to the CDC. Seven of the cases occurred between May 2013 and August 2016 and are described today in CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). The other six cases were identified after the period covered by the report and are still under investigation.

The following map displays where Candida auris cases have been identified in the United States as of November 4, 2016.

Candida auris cases

Source of map: https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/candida-auris.html

The report is the first to describe U.S. cases of C. auris infection. C. auris is often resistant to antifungal drugs and tends to occur in hospitalized patients. In June 2016, CDC issued a clinical alert describing the global emergence of C. auris and requesting that laboratories report C. auris cases and send patient samples to state and local health departments and CDC. Since then, CDC has been investigating reports of C. auris with several state and local health departments. The agency expects to continue to investigate possible cases as awareness of the emerging infection increases.

“We need to act now to better understand, contain and stop the spread of this drug-resistant fungus,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “This is an emerging threat, and we need to protect vulnerable patients and others.”

Among the seven cases detailed in the report, patients with C. auris were reported in four states: New York, Illinois, Maryland and New Jersey. All of the patients had serious underlying medical conditions and had been hospitalized an average of 18 days when C. auris was identified. Four of the patients died; it is unclear whether the deaths were associated with C. auris infection or underlying health conditions.

In two instances, two patients had been treated in the same hospital or long-term-care facility and had nearly identical fungal strains. These findings suggest that C. auris could be spread in healthcare settings.

Six of the seven cases were identified through retrospective review of hospital and reference laboratory records. Identifying C. auris requires specialized laboratory methods because it can easily be misidentified as another type of Candida infection, in which case patients may not receive appropriate treatment. Most of the patient samples in the current report were initially misidentified as another species of Candida.

Most of the C. auris strains from U.S. patients (71 percent) showed some drug resistance, making treatment more difficult. Samples of C. auris strains from other countries have been found to be resistant to all three major classes of antifungal medications. However, none of the U.S. strains in this report were resistant to all three antifungal drug classes. Based on laboratory testing, the U.S. strains were found to be related to strains from South Asia and South America. However, none of the patients travelled to or had any direct links to those regions. Most patients likely acquired the infections locally.

“It appears that C. auris arrived in the United States only in the past few years,” said Tom Chiller, M.D., M.P.H., chief of CDC’s Mycotic Diseases Branch. “We’re working hard with partners to better understand this fungus and how it spreads so we can improve infection control recommendations and help protect people.”

CDC recommends that healthcare professionals implement strict Standard and Contact Precautions to control the spread of C. auris. Facilities should conduct thorough daily and after-discharge cleaning of rooms of C. auris patients with an EPA-registered disinfectant active against fungi. Any cases of C. auris should be reported to CDC and state and local health departments. CDC can assist in identifying this particular type of Candida if needed.

In 2013, CDC issued a report describing antibiotic resistance threats in the United States that needed prompt action, including Candida infections. CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network is providing additional lab support in four regional laboratories to test fungal susceptibility of Candida species and identify emerging resistance. CDC is also expanding tracking of this fungus through the Emerging Infections Program. Information gathered through these networks plays a key role in tracking resistance and informing policies and interventions.

The challenge of emerging antibiotic resistant threats like C. auris highlights the need for urgent, coordinated federal, state, local, and international public health response and the importance of CDC’s AR Solutions Initiative. The timely investments in the AR Solutions Initiative empower CDC to rapidly detect, investigate, and respond to emerging threats, like C. auris; prevent resistant infections from occurring and spreading across healthcare settings and the community; and innovate, supporting development of new diagnostics and drugs to test, treat, prevent infections, and save lives.

For more information about how Sentry can implement a custom solution to meet your unique pharmaceutical supply chain challenges, contact Sentry via email or by phone at 1-866-757-7400, for a complimentary, no obligation phone call with one of Sentry’s problem-solving experts.

For more information: https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/candida-auris.html

New CDC Study: Influenza Vaccination Reduces Risk of Hospitalization by More Than Half Among Seniors

Influenza season is upon us, so now is an appropriate time to remind ourselves to line up for our flu shots.  Sentry BioPharma Services provides vaccine product management services to a wide group of clients from the US Federal and State government agencies to vaccine manufacturers, with an emphasis on timely delivery of vital vaccines globally.

Recently, the US Center for Disease Control (CDC) published a study on the beneficial effects of influenza vaccines on older populations within the USA.  We have provided an overview of the study below for your review and consideration.Influenza Vaccination Reduces Risk of Hospitalization

August 2, 2016—A new CDC study published today in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases (CID) provides more evidence on the benefits of flu vaccination among older adults. The study looked at flu-associated hospitalizations among people 50 and older during the 2010-2011 flu season and found that people who had received a flu vaccine reduced their risk of flu-associated hospitalization by half.

People 65 and older are at high risk of serious flu complications and account for the majority of flu hospitalizations and deaths each year. The CID study “Case-control study of vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in older adults, United States, 2010-11,” cites data from three recent influenza seasons, during which an estimated 115,000 to 630,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 to 27,000 deaths occurred. It’s estimated that people 65 and older accounted for between 54 percent and 71 percent of hospitalizations and between 71 percent and 85 percent of deaths.

The study, which compared 368 flu-hospitalized patients and compared them against case controls selected from the community, found that vaccinated people 50 years and older were 57 percent less likely to be hospitalized from flu than unvaccinated people. The benefits were similar by age group, including adults 75 years and older. This is a notable finding since flu effectiveness studies that have looked at how well vaccine protects against flu-related doctor’s visits have generally found that effectiveness is declines with age. This study indicates that protection against hospitalization was level among older people.

Annual influenza vaccination has been recommended for adults 65 and older in the U.S. since the 1960s and for adults 50 years and older since 2000. Since 2005, CDC has conducted annual influenza vaccine effectiveness studies to assess how well the vaccine works in preventing medically attended illness. Until recently, there have been few studies that look at how well the vaccine works in preventing more serious outcomes, like hospitalization. The CID study adds to a growing body of evidence that supports the importance of vaccination in order to prevent these more serious outcomes.

Study findings also support current U.S. recommendations for annual influenza vaccination among adults, especially among adults 65 years of age and older who are at high risk of influenza-associated complications. During 2015-2016, an estimated 66% of people 65 and older got a flu vaccine. While this is the highest vaccination rate among the public for any age group, that still leaves nearly one-third of people 65 and older unvaccinated.

Secure GMP storage and flu vaccine distribution services protect your refrigerated inventory throughout the temperature-controlled supply chain.  For more information about how Sentry’s vaccine storage and proven vaccine management system can protect your vaccine throughout the pharmaceutical global supply chain, contact Sentry via email or by phone at 1-866-757-7400.

Guidelines for US Citizens and Residents Living in Areas with Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission

Secure vaccine storage and distribution services protect your inventory throughout the supply chain. Sentry BioPharma Services ensures proper vaccine storage, rotation, accurate tracking and proper distribution of vaccines for routine fulfillment or pandemic response. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) and validated cold chain storage environments minimize time-out-of-refrigeration (TOR) risks, helping to reduce or eliminate waste attributable to inadequate storage methods.  Although today there is no vaccine available for Zika, several Sentry biotech clients are working to develop a vaccine for fast track clinical trials.   Sentry is providing the following information from the U.S. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the Zika virus in order to update our readers concerning the prevention of the spread of this worldwide epidemic.

What is Zika?

Zika is disease caused by a virus that is primarily spread to people through the bite of an infected mosquito. Many people who get infected never have symptoms. In people who get sick, symptoms (fever, rash, joint pain, and red eyes) are usually mild and resolve completely.

Zika can cause serious birth defects in babies born to women who were infected with Zika Zika Virusvirus during pregnancy. Zika has also been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a rare disorder that can cause muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. Most people fully recover from GBS, but some have permanent damage and, in some cases, people have died.

Zika can also spread when a man who has Zika has sex with female or male sex partners. A man can pass Zika to his partners even if he does not have symptoms at the time, or if his symptoms have gone away. We do not know how long a man who has had Zika can pass it on to his partners from sex. The mosquitoes that spread Zika usually do not live at elevations above 6,500 feet (2,000 meters). People who live in areas above this elevation are at a very low risk of getting Zika from a mosquito unless they visit or travel through areas of lower elevation. Because there is no vaccine or treatment for Zika, people living in areas with Zika should take steps to prevent infection.

Prevent Mosquito Bites

All residents living in areas where Zika is spreading should take steps to prevent mosquito bites:

  • Cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
  • Use insect repellents that are registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and contain DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, para-menthane-diol, or IR3535. Always use as directed.
    • Pregnant and breastfeeding women can use all EPA-registered insect repellents, including DEET, according to the product label.
    • Most repellents, including DEET, can be used on children older than 2 months of age. To apply, adults should spray insect repellent onto hands and then apply to a child’s face.
  • Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear (boots, pants, socks, tents). You can buy pre-treated items or treat them yourself.*
  • Stay and sleep in screened-in or air-conditioned rooms.
  • Sleep under a mosquito bed net if air conditioned or screened rooms are not available or if sleeping outdoors.
  • Mosquito netting can be used to cover babies younger than 2 months old in carriers, strollers, or cribs to protect them from mosquito bites.

*Permethrin should not be used in Puerto Rico.

Pregnant Women and Zika

Zika virus can pass from a pregnant woman to her fetus and can cause a serious birth defect of the brain called microcephaly in babies of women who had Zika virus while pregnant. Babies with microcephaly often have smaller brains that might not have developed properly. Other problems, such as eye defects, hearing loss, and impaired growth, have been detected among fetuses and infants infected with Zika virus before birth.

Pregnant women should not travel to any area with Zika. If you must travel to one of these areas, talk to your doctor or other healthcare provider first and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites and practice safe sex during your trip.

For more information about pregnancy and Zika, visit https://www.cdc.gov/zika/pregnancy/.

Practice Safe Sex

Condoms can reduce the chance of getting Zika from sex. To be effective, condoms must be used correctly from start to finish, every time during vaginal, and oral sex. A man can pass Zika to his partners even if he does not have symptoms at the time, or if his symptoms have gone away. Not having sex can eliminate the risk of getting Zika from sex.

  • Men with pregnant partners should use condoms every time during sex or not have sex during the pregnancy.
  • All pregnant women with male sex partners who live in or have traveled to an area with Zika should use condoms or not have sex during their pregnancy, even if their partners do not have Zika symptoms, or if their symptoms have gone away.
  • All men who live in or have traveled to an area with Zika should consider using condoms to protect their sex partners.

For more information about Zika and sexual transmission, visit https://www.cdc.gov/zika/transmission/sexual-transmission.html.

Zika Testing for Pregnant Women

  • All pregnant women who have visited areas with Zika should receive routine prenatal care, including an ultrasound at 18–20 weeks.
  • Pregnant women who have symptoms of Zika (fever, rash, joint pain, red eyes) and have visited areas with Zika should be tested as soon as symptoms start.
  • Pregnant women who do not have symptoms and have visited an area with Zika can be tested 2–12 weeks after travel.

Pregnant women with possible exposure to Zika virus from sex should be tested if either they or their male partners develop symptoms of Zika.

Discuss Pregnancy Planning with Healthcare Provider

Women and their partners should discuss pregnancy planning with a trusted doctor or healthcare provider. Women who want to get pregnant should talk with their healthcare provider about their goals for having children. They should also talk with their healthcare provider about the potential risk of Zika virus infection during pregnancy as well as their male partner’s potential exposures to Zika virus. As part of counseling with healthcare providers, some women and their partners living in areas with active Zika virus transmission might decide to delay pregnancy.  CDC has guidance to help doctors counsel women who live in an area with Zika who want to get pregnant. The recommended times to wait before trying to get pregnant, based on whether either partner has had symptoms, are described below:

How Long to Wait Before Trying to Have a Baby When Living in an Area with Zika Transmission
Women Men
   Zika symptoms At least 8 weeks after symptoms start At least 6 months after symptoms start
  No Zika symptoms Talk with doctor or healthcare provider Talk with doctor or healthcare provider

Women who do not want to get pregnant should talk with their doctor or healthcare provider about ways to prevent unintended pregnancy, including birth control methods. Women should consider safety, effectiveness, availability, and acceptability when choosing a birth control method.

If You or Your Partner Becomes Pregnant, Talk with Your Doctor

  • You are at risk of getting Zika throughout your pregnancy. For this reason, CDC recommends testing at the first prenatal visit and a second test in the second trimester.
  • If you have symptoms of Zika (fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes) at any time during your pregnancy, you should be tested for Zika. A healthcare provider may also test for similar diseases, like dengue or chikungunya.
  • CDC has guidance to help doctors decide what tests are needed for pregnant women who may have been exposed to Zika.

For More Information, go to www.cdc.gov and search Zika Virus.

All Countries & Territories with Active Zika Virus Transmission

As of July 26, 2016All Countries & Territories with Active Zika Virus

Americas
  • Anguilla
  • Argentina
  • Aruba
  • Barbados
  • Belize
  • Bolivia
  • Bonaire
  • Brazil
  • Colombia
  • Commonwealth of
    Puerto Rico, US territory
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Curacao
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • Ecuador
  • El Salvador
  • French Guiana
  • Grenada
  • Guadeloupe
  • Guatemala
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Jamaica
  • Martinique
  • Mexico
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Saba
  • Saint Barthélemy
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Martin
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Sint Eustatius
  • Sint Maarten
  • Suriname
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • U.S. Virgin Islands
  • Venezuela
Oceania/Pacific Islands
  • American Samoa
  • Fiji
  • Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia
  • Marshall Islands
  • New Caledonia
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Samoa
  • Tonga
Africa
  • Cape Verde

For more information about how Sentry’s proven vaccine management system can protect your vaccine throughout the global supply chain, contact Sentry via email or by phone at 1-866-757-7400.

Content source:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD)